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The Future for Chassis Integrated Control
The Future for Chassis Integrated Control
Today, we would like to learn why integrated chassis control is essential for the realization of fully autonomous driving, the history of development of chassis technology, and the direction chassis integrated control technology should go. It's about 5 minutes long.
Chassis integrated control R&D trend and future
• Coming era of fully autonomous driving
• History of development of chassis technology
• The way forward for integrated chassis control in the megatrend
• The way forward in the future of fully autonomous driving
*Clicking on the table of contents moves to the corresponding paragraph.
☑️ Currently, the automobile industry is undergoing a major paradigm shift and requires extensive integrated control of vehicle driving devices. Based on the changes so far, we look at the future of the driving integrated control system for the realization of fully autonomous driving.
☑️ Chassis technology has developed centering on electronic control technology starting with the commercialization of the ABS system in 1987. Since then, as various chassis control systems have been developed and applied, the development of integrated chassis control technology that can prevent conflicts between systems and optimize driving performance has begun.
☑️ Chassis integrated control technology has evolved from independent control of individual chassis systems, and since the 2000s, as electronic posture control systems and electric steering systems have become common, integrated control between chassis systems has become the main focus.
☑️ In the megatrend of the automobile industry called ‘CASE’, chassis integrated control will develop around morphological changes expressed by bi-wire, expansion of autonomous driving functions, centralized electric/electronic architecture, and connectivity.
Science imagination that everyone has drawn at least once in their childhood. There is a personal flying machine, and a car that moves by itself was a regular subject matter. In recent years, self-driving technology has developed by leaps and bounds, and it can be seen that the future we imagined as a child is getting closer little by little.
Currently, the automotive industry is undergoing a paradigm shift that has never been seen before, such as autonomous driving, electric vehicles, connectivity, and vehicle sharing, and these changes require a wide range of integrated control of vehicle driving devices. Today, we would like to discuss the future of the driving integrated control system for the realization of fully autonomous driving based on the current changes in the automobile industry.
A car is largely composed of a body and a chassis. The body refers to the exterior of the car and the part that carries people and cargo, while the chassis refers to the rest of the body excluding the body. Representative chassis systems include the ‘braking system’ for deceleration and stop, the ‘steering system’ for adjusting direction, and the ‘suspension system’ for alleviating shock and vibration.
These chassis systems directly determine the overall performance of the vehicle, and have been developed in various forms in line with the development of electronic control technology and the increasing need for improved driving stability and convenience.
Since individual chassis control systems functionally operate in the dynamic range in one of the longitudinal, lateral and vertical directions, there is a limit to optimizing driving performance with individual chassis control systems alone. In addition, simultaneous operation of individual chassis control systems can cause interference between systems, adversely affecting performance. Therefore, the need for integrated control between systems to avoid interference between individual chassis systems and improve overall dynamic performance has become important. The integrated control of chassis systems aims to ultimately maximize driving performance through integration between the physical limits and what can be achieved with chassis systems, as well as the individual chassis systems.
Chassis technology, which has been developed centering on mechanical engineering, has developed centering on electronic control technology, starting with the commercialization of the Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) in 1987. However, there was a limit to optimizing driving performance with individual systems alone, and problems such as performance limitations and stability deterioration such as conflicts between systems occurred, and chassis integrated control technology began to be developed.
In the late 1980s, early chassis integrated control technology began with the development of 4WS (4 Wheel Steer) led by Japanese automakers. An example is Japan’s Toyota, which applied 4WS to its ‘Soarer’ model in 1991. The chassis integrated control technology of this period was based on a structure called PeC (Peaceful Coexistence), in which each individual chassis system independently determined its own control input with its own electronic control unit (ECU, Electric Control Unit). In the beginning, conflicts between the individual systems did not occur significantly, so mediation between the individual chassis systems was achieved by means of compensation values within each system control algorithm.
From the mid-1990s, chassis integrated control technology centered on Active Front Steer (AFS) has been dominant. Chassis integrated control technology of this period is based on the CoC (Cooperative Coexistence) structure, and individual chassis systems perform independent control, but it is characterized by adding an arbitration layer at the rear end. The arbitration layer detected potential conflicts and arbitrated interference according to predefined priorities between the individual chassis systems. However, these systems have limitations in that they are difficult to cope with random driving situations and lack the reliability of intervention strategies.
Since the 2000s, as electronic stability control systems and electric power steering systems have become common, integrated control between these systems has become the main focus. Automakers rushed to release integrated control technology between ESC and EPS. The trend of integrated chassis control based on ESC-EPS continues to this day, and is recently expanding to integration with driver assistance systems (ADAS) to support semi-autonomous driving functions.
Currently, the automobile industry is undergoing major paradigm shifts such as autonomous driving, electric vehicles, connectivity, and vehicle sharing. Based on these changes, the keyword CASE (Connected, Autonomous, Shared, Electric), which defines the direction of future chassis integrated control technology, appeared. In addition to existing automakers, technology companies such as Google and Tesla are speeding up the development of electric and autonomous vehicles, blurring the boundaries between industries and intensifying competition.
In terms of form, a change to a By-Wire form without a mechanical connection structure is expected, and through this, a higher degree of freedom and diversity of functions can be expected for vehicle control. In other words, future chassis integrated control technology can be expected to develop around morphological changes represented by bi-wire, expansion of functions for autonomous driving, centralized E/E architecture, and connectivity.
Systematized centralized electric/electronic architecture (E/E Architecture) is also an important keyword for future chassis integrated control technology. Future chassis integrated control technology will realize optimal dynamic performance and, based on this, provide optimal vehicle motion control for fully autonomous driving.
Finally, an important direction for future chassis integrated control technology to look at is connectivity. Connectivity here refers to the concept of providing various services through real-time communication by being always connected to the inside/outside of the vehicle and the communication network. It is also the basis for various functions that provide convenience and safety to drivers and passengers, such as driving information analysis, remote vehicle control and management, driving assistance and autonomous driving support.
Connectivity is expected to contribute to the spread of AI technologies that require powerful computing power by enabling AI models to be run on remote cloud servers. On the other hand, the risk of cyber attacks is always latent, so the importance of cyber security to respond to them is expected to be highlighted.
As we have seen so far, chassis technology, which started as a center of early mechanical technology, has evolved to enable more active control thanks to the development of electronic control technology, and various types of integrated chassis control technology are being developed.
Currently, in the midst of a major paradigm shift, the automotive industry requires not only integration that was limited to previous functions, but also integration in a wide range, such as structural integration and integration with cloud and communication infrastructure environments. In accordance with these changes, future chassis integrated control technology will develop around autonomous driving, centralized E/E architecture, and connectivity, and changes in the scope, properties, and form of functions are expected.
HL Mando, a domestic automobile electrification and EV system specialist, has been leading the development of domestic automobile technology by independently mass-producing and applying various chassis control technologies. In addition, in line with the recent CASE trend, the world's first mass-production application of Steer-by-Wire (SbW) and the development of a fully redundant structure system are recognized worldwide for technological prowess in future chassis systems. In order to successfully respond to rapidly changing industry trends and competition with world-class companies, HL Mando will continue to do its best to secure talents in various fields such as system, control, software and AI, and security, foster human resources, and secure basic technologies. .
In addition to the automotive industry, the Halla Group carries out activities in many other areas. These include, for example, shipbuilding, education and sports.
One of the largest brands in the automotive supply industry is Mando Aftermarket, which is part of the South Korean Halla Corporation Europe.
This event was organized by one of the largest purchasing groups in the world called Nexus, with which we cooperate.